Agroøkologi og bæredygtighed

Landbrugsudvalget under FN’s landbrugs- og fødevareorganisation, FAO, mødes i denne uge i Rom. Udvalget – eller COAG, Committee on Agriculture – er et af FAO’s centrale udvalg, der rådgiver medlemmerne om overordnede politiske og lovgivningsmæssige spørgsmål vedrørende landbrug, husdyr, fødevaresikkerhed, ernæring, udvikling af landdistrikter og naturressourceforvaltning.

FN’s Generalforsamling vedtog i september 2015 en visionær og ambitiøs agenda med 17 konkrete mål for bæredygtig udvikling frem mod 2030: “Transforming our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development”.

På mødet i FAO’s landbrugsudvalg er landbrugets rolle i denne agenda et centralt emne. Som grundlag for udvalgets beslutninger foreligger dokumentet ”Agriculture and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development”.

Det ventes at landbrugsudvalget vil anbefale, at udviklingen og implementeringen af bæredygtigt landbrug i forhold til de 17 bæredygtighedsmål baseres på følgende principper:

·         Improving efficiency in the use of resources. This includes improved genetic material, improved agricultural technologies and practices, integrated management of pests and soil fertility, precision irrigation, improved animal feeding and health control, reduced loss and waste.

·         Conserving, protecting and enhancing natural ecosystems. This includes practices for the conservation of plant and animal genetic resources, restoration and conservation of soils, protection against water pollution, reduced carbon emission intensity, and incentives for environmental services, such as the protection of pollinators and carbon sequestration. 

·         Protecting and improving rural livelihoods, equity and social well-being. Of critical importance is the extent to which rural people, in particular small-scale family farmers, youth and women, have secure and equitable access to knowledge, services, markets and resources, including land and water, control over their livelihood through decent work opportunities, and access to diverse and nutritious food.

·         Enhancing the resilience of people, communities and ecosystems. This includes contingency planning for droughts, floods or pest outbreaks and the adoption of more diversified and resilient production systems, associated with effective safety nets. 

·         Promoting responsible and effective governance mechanisms across natural and human systems. This includes effective policies and strategies that are consistent across sectors, alignment of legal frameworks and investments, and strengthening of capacities of public institutions and other relevant stakeholders at all levels. It is based on broad stakeholder consultation, strengthening partnerships, and the application of mediation and conflict resolution mechanisms that are needed to build consensus around sustainable development objectives.

Det fremgår af FAO-dokumentet (afsnit 17), at der faktisk allerede findes muligheder for en gradvis udvikling af en landbrugsproduktion, der på samme tid er mere bæredygtige og produktiv. Forskning og innovation har bidraget til langt bedre forståelse af økosystemerne, og der findes allerede i dag metoder, der gør det muligt at forbedre jordens sundhed, øge kulstofbinding, forbedre udnyttelsen af vand og energi, effektivisere fødevareforsyningskæderne, reducere fødevarespild og bevare biodiversiteten. Forskning indenfor agroøkologi tilbyder også elementer af svar på udfordringen.

Det er sammenfattende FAO’s opfattelse, at der burde være større opmærksomhed på at fremme de muligheder, der faktisk allerede findes for produktion af mere og sundere mad.